Uber is a technology platform that enables independent driver partners to provide rideshare services to riders, and which enables the delivery packages for customers through a network of independent delivery partners.
Since launching in Brazil in 2014 until 2021 Uber has:
- Intermediated over 6.7 billion rides and deliveries
- Transferred at least R$76 billion to driver and delivery partners
- Paid R$4.9 billion in federal and municipal taxes
For this report, Uber Brazil commissioned Public First to help them better understand and quantify the impact Uber made in 2021 across the country, focusing on the specific impact of Uber’s rideshare and delivery platforms in Brazil. Public First is an independent consultancy that works to help companies and organisations develop new policy proposals, better understand public opinion, and model their economic and social impact. Public First is a member of the Market Research Society, and all the modelling for this report was independently peer reviewed.
As part of the research for this report, we ran an in-depth nationally-representative poll to explore how and why Brazilians use the Uber app, and produced new quantitative models of the economic impact and value created to consumers, drivers, and cities by Uber.
Uber’s technology helps save time, expand mobility, create new business, and provide flexible earning opportunities for one million driver and delivery partners in Brazil.
In 2021, Uber created an estimated R$36 Billion in economic value for the Brazilian economy, or the equivalent of 0.4% of the entire economy. This includes both the impact of driver and delivery partner earnings, and the wider direct and indirect multiplier effect created throughout the company's wider supply chain, such as the cost of maintaining cars and motos.
According to 62% of Brazilian riders, ridesharing is the most significant transport innovation they have experienced in the last decade, and more impactful to them than any new transportation infrastructure project.
Riders and Users
The on-demand economy has helped make everyday life easier for Brazilians - saving time, increasing choice, and improving mobility. For riders, the primary reasons for using the Uber app is the convenience and safety it provides. Ridesharing platforms have made it easier to travel from place to place, but have also helped to make it safer to travel across towns and cities late at night. Ridesharing is an increasingly important part of the night-time economy.
95% of riders say that safety is an important reason why they use the Uber app
92% of riders say that convenience is an important reason why they use the Uber app. In a normal year, we estimate that Uber saves riders over 250 million hours a year.
In 2021, we estimate that Uber generated R$185 billion in consumer surplus for Brazilians.
Driver and delivery partners overwhelmingly choose to use the Uber driver app because of the independence and flexibility it provides.
87% of drivers and delivery partners said that schedule flexibility is an important reason why they work using the Uber app.
78% of drivers say that it is important to have flexible hours due to family, health or educational needs.
Communities and Safety
Ridesharing services like the one intermediated by Uber provide a safer way for people to get home at night; safety is the most important reason why people choose to use Uber.
96% of female riders say that safety is an important factor in why they choose to ride with Uber
64% of Brazilians agree that it is now easier than it used to be to get home late at night
81% of Brazilians think ridesharing services have helped reduce drunk driving in their area
Ridesharing services intermediated by Uber often complement, rather than replace, public transport. In São Paulo, Uber integrates information on the public transport system into the app, making it easier for people to choose the most efficient mobility option for them.
50% of Uber riders across Brazil say they have used Uber to connect with public transport
66% of Uber riders across Brazil say they have used Uber to reach places that public transport does not yet reach
The Invention of Uber
Uber was founded in 2009, with the first ride requested in San Francisco in 2010. By building on the GPS and connectivity built into a smartphone, the new app enabled several innovations:
- Instead of never being sure when their ride would pick them up, passengers could see the vehicle come to them in real time.
- By making it easier for drivers to find riders and vice versa, the service enabled drivers to spend less time waiting around, reducing costs and increasing earnings.
- The use of built-in GPS made it easier for drivers to navigate to new destinations.
- Riders and drivers could give feedback to each other, giving both more incentive to ensure a pleasant drive and helping to improve safety.
When combined, these innovations ensured that the Uber app was not just another way to get around, but unlocked a new mode of mobility - complementing public transport, while offering, through its technology, an alternative to traditional private cars.
Uber first launched in Brazil in 2014. Today, the app is used by 30 million Brazilians quarterly across more than 500 cities, with approximately one million drivers and delivery partners using Uber platforms. Beyond increasing its coverage in Brazil, the company has also expanded to explore more ways to increase mobility such as public transit journey planning.
According to Brazilians, ride-sharing services like Uber are the most significant transport innovation they have experienced in the last decade - and more impactful to them than any new transportation infrastructure project. In this report, we explore why.
Thinking back on the last ten years, which changes have had the biggest positive impact on your own travelling experience? Please select up to three.
The Economic Impact of Uber
There are multiple channels through which Uber creates economic value:
- Saving time for businesses. Just like a new runway, highway or rail link, Uber saves significant time for businesses - directly boosting productivity.
- Facilitating the income of thousands of drivers and delivery partners. Thousands of drivers and delivery partners earn or supplement their income through Uber’s platform.
- Indirectly supporting the jobs of thousands of more through the wider supply chain supporting drivers and delivery partners. The spending of drivers and delivery partners on their cars and motorcycles in turn supports a wider supply chain of jobs in other companies such as car manufacturing, garages, and insurance companies.
- Keeping the economy moving during Covid-19. In recent years, Uber app has helped ensure that millions of individuals without access to a car or convenient public transport can continue to make essential trips to commute to work, pick up shopping, or get to medical appointments. Newly introduced features such as mask verification, partitions and new cleaning protocols helped keep riders and drivers safe throughout.
- Encouraging higher demand for restaurants or the hospitality industry. By making it easier and safer to travel late at night, the Uber app encourages more spending in the night-time economy in bars, restaurants, movie theatres and clubs.
In total, we estimate that in 2021 Uber unlocked R$36 billion in economic value for Brazil. This includes both the impact of earnings of drivers facilitated by Uber, and the wider indirect and induced multiplier effect created throughout the wider supply chain.
But in addition to this, many of the important types of value that Uber creates, don’t get measured in traditional Gross Value Added statistics:
- Helping people to connect with public transport By helping riders in Sao Paulo to see real-time public transport information in the Uber app, and by intermediating the means for riders to get to their nearest bus, train, or metro stop, Uber helps to connect the region. In our polling, we found that 50% of riders say they have used Uber app to connect with public transport, while independent surveys have found 87% of riders in Sao Paulo have used Uber in addition to public transport.1
- Enabling more flexible work for drivers and delivery partners who use the Uber app. Overwhelmingly, drivers and delivery partners who use the Uber app have said that they valued the freedom to set their own hours, letting them balance work with other responsibilities, jobs or interests.
- Increasing the safety of cities. Uber helps plug the inevitable gaps in public transport, especially when public transportation options become limited further into the evening, helping to make it safer to get home - with clear evidence that the presence of the service improves road safety.2
- Freeing up leisure time for riders. Much of the time saved by the use of Uber app is in riders’ personal lives - but that does not mean it matters less. This is extra time spent with family, enjoying sports, socialising or resting in the backseat rather than driving. In Sao Paulo, a Fipe study using Uber data showed that individuals travelling by car spent, on average, 23 minutes per working day stuck in traffic jams, while riders have this time relaxing in the drivers' car backseat.3
How We Measured Uber’s Impact
In this report, Uber Brazil commissioned Public First to better understand and quantify the impact they were making for users, drivers, and communities in Brazil.
We used a mixture of methods to explore Uber’s impact:
- An in-depth nationally-representative poll of 2,029 Brazilian adults to explore how and why Brazilians used the Uber app, and their views on the emergence of ridesharing intermediation services more generally.
- Building off the data from Public First’s poll, data provided by Uber and official statistics from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, we created new quantitative models of the economic impact, time saved, consumer surplus and driver value created by Uber.
- Working with polling provided by Uber and conducted by the Datafolha Institute of 2,400 drivers and delivery partners, we explored why drivers chose to use Uber, and how they used the app.
- We performed a new literature review of the extensive independent academic research, looking at the latest evidence on Uber’s impact on drivers, riders and cities.
Uber Technology Center
As well as providing drivers and delivery partners the means to earn money, Uber directly supports jobs across much of the economy. Uber has opened a Technology Center in Brazil - the first of its kind in Latin America - which supports over 200 highly skilled jobs in fields such as engineering, software design, and data analysis.
The Brazil-based Technology Center was founded in 2018, with an investment of R$250 million, to serve as a hub for Uber’s safety research. The Safety Team at the Uber Technology Center is responsible for planning and developing new features that help to prevent incidents with the Uber app, and help riders travel to their destinations safely and securely everyday across the world. Nowadays the TechCenter is also a hub of Identity, Money, Payments, Uber for Business, Delivery and Grocery engineering teams.
Uber uses real-time telematics and motion sensing technologies along with multi-faceted machine learning algorithms and user-facing mobile products in order to reduce and prevent unsafe driving and behaviour on the Uber platform. In addition to these real-time technologies, Uber utilises other programmes to help increase safety for drivers and riders;
- U-Check works to validate user documents to help ensure that the people who use the app are who they say they are. It helps Uber to verify drivers and riders identity information, drawing from third-party resources to verify documents such as drivers licenses and vehicles documents for drivers, and CPF for riders in Brazil.
- U-Audio gives riders and drivers the chance to record the audio of their rides, helping people to feel safe and protected, and provide assurances if the worst happens.
- U-Elas helps drivers feel safer by allowing female drivers to only pick up female riders, if they choose to do so.
Not only does Uber’s Technology Center provide jobs and help keep drivers and riders safe using the app, it also develops strong links between countries. All Safety projects at Uber are part of a strong collaboration between teams located around the world, in São Paulo, San Francisco, India, Chile, Mexico, and Colombia.
How we use Uber
From getting home from a restaurant to travelling between meetings, to being there in an emergency, the availability of convenient ridesharing intermediated by the platform has become something many Brazilians increasingly rely on:
But the Uber app is not just used to help people enjoy themselves. Riders we surveyed said that they used the Uber app to celebrate major life events with their loved ones:
And Uber also plays a more practical role in Brazil. We found that the Uber app is being widely used to help with work, everyday chores and childcare.
On average, riders say Uber saves around 10 minutes per trip compared to the next best alternative. Building off this, we estimate that using the Uber app saves riders over 250 million hours in a normal year.
Why choose Uber?
When we asked riders about the most important reasons why they used the Uber app, safety (95%) came top, followed by cost (94%), time saved (94%), and reliability (94%). This was followed by comfort (93%) and convenience (92%).
Even more striking, however, was when we asked as part of the survey for riders to write in their own words why they use the app - and two answers came back far more than others: Uber is seen as Safe and Fast.
In your own words, why do you use Uber?
“I have two young children and [Uber is] the safest way for me to go out with them.” Woman, aged 25, from Goias
“I use it as an alternative to avoid stress in traffic.” Woman, aged 48, from Pernambuco
“I use Uber because of the speed of the service and the low cost.” Man, aged 31, from Goias
“It is more convenient when I do not want to - or for when I cannot - drive.” Man, aged 47, from Sao Paulo State
“It is very convenient, practical, and safe to travel around in.” Woman, aged 50, from Sao Paulo State
The Uber Experience
Uber Driver partners are a key part of the experience for many riders. Whether you’re on the streets of Sao Paulo, headed to the beaches of Fortaleza, or coming back from a night out in Rio de Janeiro, Uber’s driver partners offer local knowledge that can help travellers make the most of their trip.
In our polling, we found:
- 59% of riders we surveyed said that they have learned something interesting from a conversation with a driver, and 31% said that they have had a recommendation for somewhere to go from a driver
Which of the following have you experienced in an Uber?
“The excellent service of a driver when I was returning from a dental consultation for wisdom tooth removal.” Woman, aged 25, from Rio Grande do Sul
“On a trip the driver had a very good playlist, we were singing the whole trip.” Woman, aged 22, from Rio de Janeiro State
“When I made friends with the Uber driver, we talked the whole route to my destination.” Woman, aged 31, from Parana
“My best favourite memory was when I used Uber Black and the service was high level, simply luxurious.” Man, aged 40, from Sao Paulo State
“The day I took an Uber and crossed Alto da Boa Vista, seeing a beautiful and unforgettable image.” Man, aged 46, from Rio de Janeiro State
Uber Flash and Uber Moto
With people having to spend more time apart in recent years, families and friends can feel more distant than ever. Delivery services have increasingly become a central part of daily life in Brazil, especially when people are unable to physically send packages themselves. Uber Flash is a door-to-door delivery product that enables its users to request trips through Uber's app to send packages in a flash to a friend, family member, or even to a client.
Getting across a city often isn’t easy at rush hour, with traffic sometimes holding people up for hours at a time. Uber Moto is a new Uber product that allows riders to request a ride on a motorcycle, rather than a car, in order to quickly and cheaply get to their destination.
How much value does Uber create for consumers?
How much is the increased convenience and reliability enabled by Uber worth to users?
One of the most important measures of economic welfare is the consumer surplus - the amount you would have to pay someone for them to voluntarily give a good or service up. If a good has a zero consumer surplus, that implies we can take or leave it - whereas goods with a high consumer surplus are playing an important role in our lives.
As part of their poll, we asked riders and consumers how much they would have to be compensated to lose access to the Uber app for the next month.
In total, in 2021 we estimate that rides with Uber produced the equivalent of R$185 billion in improved consumer surplus for Brazilian riders.
What is consumer surplus?
The consumer surplus is a standard measure of the consumer welfare created by a product, service or organisation. It is the difference between the price the consumer is willing to pay for a service, and the price they actually pay for a service.
One way to think of this is that most goods in the market charge the same price to all or a group of customers - but they are not likely to create equal amounts of value. The price you pay for something is likely to be at least equal to the minimum value it creates for you - or you would not have chosen to buy it - but there is no reason the value it creates can not be significantly more than this. By totalling the surplus consumer value, we produce a measure called the consumer surplus.
Drivers and Delivery People
Driver and delivery partners are generally satisfied with the experience of using Uber. In Uber’s drivers and delivery partners survey,6 they found that;
- When they asked driver and delivery partners what were important reasons they chose to drive or deliver through the Uber driver app, the most popular answers were schedule flexibility (87%), earning money to put aside for themselves or their family (86%), restoring income lost during the pandemic (81%), and having autonomy or ‘being their own boss’ (83%).
- 59% agreed that driving and delivering through apps gives them clear expectations on earnings, based on time, place, and work frequency.
If they weren’t driving using the Uber app, many would look for another, similar, driving or delivery role.
The Importance of Access to Flexible Work
The ability to choose your own hours and being self-employed is often particularly important to drivers and delivery partners. Many driver and delivery partners balance their time on the Uber app with jobs, the use of other platforms, education, or caring responsibilities.
The following are a few reasons people have given to explain why they drive or make deliveries through apps. Indicate how important each reason is to you.
In order to test its importance, Datafolha surveyed drivers and delivery partners whether they would prefer to remain self-employed, or take the same job on a more fixed contract. 62% of drivers and delivery partners said they preferred their current status as self-employed professionals.
Flexibility matters for many reasons. Most drivers and delivery partners also earn money from other sources; on average, each Uber driver and delivery partner work using 2.3 different apps7. 1 in 3 drivers and delivery partners work using the Uber app less than 5 days a week, and 73% are online for fewer than 30 hours a week. It is only a small minority of drivers (34%) who have been driving using apps for three years or more, while another third (34%) have been driving using apps for less than twelve months.
Flexibility can be particularly important for those with other caring responsibilities for children, eldery relatives or others who need support:
Communities and Safety
Keeping People Safe
After they have enjoyed an evening out, many people can be anxious about travelling home in the dark. Before ridesharing, it could be difficult, if not impossible, to find a taxi at the end of a night out - and taking public transport could require a long walk in the dark to your front door, or waiting alone at a bus stop.
In our polling, four fifths of female riders (83%) agreed that using the Uber app is often the safest way for them to travel home.
Independent academic research has found that having the Uber app available in a city can help to rapidly reduce rates of drunk driving and traffic accidents, along with reducing the number of arrests for physical and sexual assault. One study found that Uber’s arrival in Brazil led to a 10% reduction in deaths on the road and a 17% reduction in hospitalizations due to traffic accidents in cities that started using the app.8 In our polling we found that 81% of people think that ridesharing services have helped to reduce the level of drunk driving in their area.
For many people during the Coronavirus pandemic, ridesharing services helped them to see their family and friends, get to work, and make their appointments in a safer way. A third of Brazilian Uber riders said that during the Coronavirus pandemic, Uber was the only way they got around (34%).
A big reason for Uber's importance in the coronavirus pandemic is that Uber is seen as safer than other forms of public transportation: an overwhelming majority of people who used Uber since the start of the pandemic agreed with this (83%). When we asked riders whether they felt safe using different types of transit during the pandemic, 81% said they felt safe using ridesharing services, 44% said they felt safe using traditional taxi services, and just 19% said they felt safe using public transit.
And Uber has continued to improve upon this reputation for safety. 91% of riders said they felt safe in their most recent journey using the Uber app in terms of coronavirus precautions. In response to the pandemic, and to help people continue to feel safe while travelling with driver partners, Uber introduced new features such as mask verification, partition screens and additional cleaning protocols.
Alongside providing a safe way to get around Brazil’s towns and cities, Uber helped hundreds of thousands of people get vaccinated, by providing over 800,000 free rides to people in high-risk groups, health professionals, and the general population to get to their vaccination centre easily and securely. Uber also donated over 200,000 free rides to help health professionals in Sao Paulo get to community health centres. In total, Uber helped to provide over a million free rides to help Brazil through the coronavirus pandemic.9
Public Transport and Sustainability
Decarbonizing transport is one of the most important steps for countries to achieve net zero emissions, with the sector responsible for around a fifth of global CO2 emissions.10 Cities are concentrated sites of carbon emissions, accounting for approximately 70% of all emissions globally. Uber is committed to having 100% of intermediated rides globally in zero-emission vehicles or through micro mobility and public transport, by 2040.11
In 2021, Uber introduced Uber Planet helping riders offset their carbon emissions in the app. Uber Planet works with Carbonext, a company that acts on projects to protect 1 million hectares of the Amazon rainforest, and allows riders to build carbon credits with every trip. The partnership can generate up to 5 million tons of carbon credits every year, supporting Carbonext to reforest and combat deforestation.
Technologies such as ridesharing intermediation can help fill in any gaps in the services offered by public transport, making it easier to get around and reducing the need to own your own car. In our polling, 66% of Brazillian without access to a car said the availability of ridesharing platforms like Uber was important to their choice of not owning a vehicle.
Ridesharing services accessed through platforms like Uber have an important role to play in helping cities reduce their dependence on private cars. Ridesharing services often complement, rather than replace, public transport.
In São Paulo, Uber has even begun to integrate information on the public transport system into the app, to allow riders to plan their journey with buses, trains, and subways in mind.12 While in Rio, Uber has partnered with MetroRio to offer discounted subway tickets for riders connecting with subway stations across the city.
In our polling, we found that half (50%) of Uber riders say they had used the Uber app to connect with public transport.
Uber across Brazil
Since its launch in 2014, Uber has helped Brazilians across the country to get around. The app is used by more than 30 million Brazilians quarterly across more than 500 cities, with approximately one million drivers and delivery partners using Uber platforms.
Uber’s impact is particularly felt in Brazil’s largest cities. We asked respondents in Fortaleza, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and São Paulo, what they thought about Uber in their area.
In 2021, Uber created an estimated R$1.2 billion in economic value for Fortaleza, which is the equivalent of 1.8% of local GDP. In our polling, we found that;
- 96% of respondents in Fortaleza said that having options like Uber helps to reduce drunk driving in their area.
- 75% of respondents in Fortaleza said that the arrival of ridesharing services like Uber has been one of the best transport innovation of the last decade.
In our poll, 95% of riders in Fortaleza said that time savings were among the most important reasons why they used Uber. This compares to 94% across Brazil as a whole.
On average, riders in Fortaleza say Uber saves around 6 minutes per trip compared to the next best alternative. Building off this, we estimate that Uber saves riders in Fortaleza over 5 million hours in a normal year.
Rio de Janeiro
In 2021, Uber created an estimated R$5.5 billion in economic value for Rio de Janeiro, which is the equivalent of 1.6% of local GDP. In our polling, we found that;
- 85% of respondents in Rio de Janeiro said that having options like Uber helps to reduce drunk driving in their area.
- 63% of respondents in Rio de Janeiro said that the arrival of ridesharing services like Uber has been one of the best transport innovations of the last decade.
In our poll, 96% of riders in Rio de Janeiro said that safety was among the most important reasons why they use Uber. This compares to 95% across Brazil as a whole.
On average, riders in Rio de Janeiro say Uber saves around 9 minutes per trip compared to the next best alternative. Building off this, we estimate that Uber saves riders in Rio de Janeiro over 34 million hours in a normal year.
In 2021, Uber created an estimated R$1 billion in economic value for Salvador, which is the equivalent of 1.9% of local GDP. In our polling, we found that;
- 69% of respondents in Salvador said that having options like Uber helps to reduce drunk driving in their area.
- 65% of respondents in Salvador said that the arrival of ridesharing services like Uber has been one of the best transport innovation of the last decade.
On average, riders in Salvador say Uber saves around 10 minutes per trip compared to the next best alternative. Building off this, we estimate that Uber saves riders in Salvador over 8.1 million hours in a normal year.
In 2021, Uber created an estimated R$7 billion in economic value for Sao Paulo, which is the equivalent of 1% of local GDP. In our polling, we found that;
- 79% of respondents in Sao Paulo said that having options like Uber helps to reduce drunk driving in their area.
- 60% of respondents in Sao Paulo said that the arrival of ridesharing services like Uber has been one of the best transport innovation of the last decade.
In our poll, 95% of riders in Sao Paulo said that safety was among the most important reasons why they use Uber. This compares to 95% across Brazil as a whole.
On average, riders in Sao Paulo say Uber saves around 11 minutes per trip compared to the next best alternative. Building off this, we estimate that Uber saves riders in Sao Paulo over 54 million hours in a normal year.
Public First conducted an online survey of 2,029 respondents in Brazil between 15th July 2022 and 22nd July 2022. We worked with the panel provider Dynata, one of the world’s largest market research companies, to access their online panel. In order to ensure the consumer poll was representative, we used a combination of two approaches;
- Quotaing. Working with Dynata, we sought to ensure that we reached a minimum number of people in each federal region, age band, gender, and by their education level.
- Weighting. After initial fieldwork and quality checks were completed, we then weighted the final results so that our relative demographics matched the pattern from national statistics data by the following; interlocking age and gender, federal region, education level, and socioeconomic group.
Like all polling data, market research is susceptible to poor memory or consumers not answering truthfully. In order to reduce the risk of this, we complete a number of standard quality checks on the polling data to help ensure that respondents are paying attention:
- Excluding respondents who take too long to answer
- Excluding respondents who ‘straight-line’, eg. always picking the top or left most option to every question
- Excluding respondents who fail an attention check, eg in the middle of a longer question, we ask them to pick a particular option if they are reading
- Excluding respondents whose answers all perfectly match another
- Excluding respondents whose open text answers are incoherent or look like they have been generated by a computer bot
All data derived from the consumer survey has a margin of error of approximately ±3%. Where data has been localised from the nationally representative survey - for example, “X% of people in Rio de Janeiro say they have used the Uber app in the last two years” - we have only referred to areas where our sampling provided at least 100 respondents.
Following the methodology of Brynjolfsson, Collis and Eggers（2019), we asked riders a single discrete binary choice question in the form:
“Now imagine you had to choose between the following options. Would you prefer to keep access to Uber or go without access to Uber for one month and get paid R$X?”
The price offered was randomised between R$2.5, R$5, R$10, R$20, R$50, R$100, R$250, R$500 and R$1000.
We then computed both a linear and logarithmic regression of the results of this poll to derive a demand curve and the total consumer surplus per user, taking the average as the headline measure.
As part of our polling, we asked riders for the duration of their most recent trip using the Uber app, and how long the next best alternative would have taken. We then used the difference to estimate time saved per trip, multiplying by Uber provided data on total number of annual intermediated trips by region to estimate total time saved per year, splitting this into trips for work and trips for leisure. We then calculated the total monetary value of this, valuing work trips at an estimate of average GDP per capita, and leisure time at 30% of this.
Total Economic Impact
Total economic impact is calculated as the sum of:
- Driver payouts.
- Indirect and induced impact of driver spending on vehicles, such as on maintenance.
- Induced impact of additional driver income.
This measure is a gross estimate, looking at the total amount of economic activity supported by Uber in Brazil. It does not attempt to measure what would happen in a hypothetical where Uber no longer existed. Our modelling does not include the impact of Uber’s direct investment or employment footprint as a company, or any spillover effect this has to the wider tech ecosystem.
- Driving Safety : An Empirical Analysis of Ridesharing’s Impact on Drunk Driving and Alcohol-Related Crime, Frank Martin-Buck, 2016, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3f1e/b273fcee888441147105882dd12ca811fd35.pdf; Ride-Sharing, Fatal Crashes, and Crime, Angela K. Dills and Sean E. Mullholland, 2016, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/soej.12255; Assessing the Impact of Ridesharing Services on Public Health and Safety Outcomes, Marlon Graf, 2017, https://milkeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/reports-pdf/110117-Ridesharing-and-Public-Health.pdf; Rideshare Utilization Decreases Motor Vehicle Trauma and Impaired Driving, Christopher R Conner, Ryan S Kitagawa, Samantha Parker, 2020
- Quotes have been edited for spelling and grammar, but are otherwise unchanged.
- Quotes have been edited for spelling and grammar, but are otherwise unchanged.
- Driving Safety : An Empirical Analysis of Ridesharing’s Impact on Drunk Driving and Alcohol-Related Crime, Frank Martin-Buck, 2016, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3f1e/b273fcee888441147105882dd12ca811fd35.pdf; Ride-Sharing, Fatal Crashes, and Crime, Angela K. Dills and Sean E. Mullholland, 2016, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/soej.12255; Assessing the Impact of Ridesharing Services on Public Health and Safety Outcomes, Marlon Graf, 2017, https://milkeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/reports-pdf/110117-Ridesharing-and-Public-Health.pdf; Rideshare Utilization Decreases Motor Vehicle Trauma and Impaired Driving, Christopher R Conner, Ryan S Kitagawa, Samantha Parker, 2020, https://academic.oup.com/neurosurgery/article/67/Supplement_1/nyaa447_101/5982419